Some of the tools and scales are also designed to monitor certain conditions. Ferreira, R.F. Morin A.J.S., Moullec G., Maïano C., Layet, L., Just, J.-L., & Ninot G. Psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) in French Clinical and Non-Clinical Adults. Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe, et al (2002) Short screening scales to monitor population prevalence and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Knight JR, Sherritt L, Shrier LA, Harris SK, Chang G. Validity of the CRAFFT substance abuse screening test among adolescent clinic patients. Epidemiology and Public Health/Revue d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, 2011. The reference lists of the resulting The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) 14 November 2012 Field trial WHOQOL-100 February 1995 : the 100 questions with response scales, 2012 revision Field trial WHOQOL-100 February 1995 : the 100 questions with response scales, 2012 revision Parent-report or self-report (11 to 17 years old), Available in multiple languages, including French, 100-2305 St. Laurent Blvd The MHSAS score is a measure of help seeking attitudes (Hammer, Parent, & Spiker, 2018), as it is known in the literature on professional mental health treatment seeking behavior. Physical activity & sedentary behaviour guidelines, Canadian Paediatric Society's Mental Health Task Force. If you require publications or documents in other formats please email the Public Health Scotland Other Formats team. Scoring is mean scores for individuals or groups. BEARS: Bedtime resistance, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Awakenings, Regularity, Snoring. Items measure quality of life regarding mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression, as well as overall health. 1979, 9: 273-279. These scales were specifically developed as a measure of severity of mental health disorder and to assess treatment outcome in people with mental illness. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. (accepted by Quality of Life Research) 5. Mark L. Wolraich, MD, Warren Lambert, PhD, Melissa A. Doffing, MA, Leonard Bickman, PhD, Tonya Simmons, BS, Kim Worley, MD. (1994). Others resources, like forms in Children with School Problems and the CADDRA Teacher Assessment Form, were developed to help healthcare providers (assessing children with potential mental health or learning problems) gather medical and educational information from parents/caregivers and teachers. Braz J Med Biol Res. In general, the PCS and MCS are widely recognized independent, aggregate measures of physical and mental health, respectively. Dhalla S 1 Zumbo BD, Poole G, Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 2011, 4(1):57-64. Information can serve as the basis for early intervention and patient-centered counseling. The 14-item scale WEMWBS has 5 response categories, summed to provide a single score. Validation of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers Revised with Follow-up (M-CHAT-R/F). Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Volume 28(8), 2003:559–568. However, no scale measuring self-stigmatization in younger children is available to date. Measure availability: We provide information on a variety of measures assessing trauma and PTSD.These measures are intended for use by qualified mental health professionals and researchers. This scale is not intended to provide a diagnosis – only trained health professionals should do this. 269-280. Thirty years with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: voices from the past and recommendations for the future. Validity of brief screening instrument for adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Considering the known negative effects of stigma associated with mental illness in adults, it is crucial to explore the stigma experienced by children who access mental health treatment. Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): a replication study. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information. Brief survey of six early traumatic experiences (death, divorce, violence, sexual abuse, illness or other), and assesses individual’s understanding of their childhood trauma. I. Psychometric evaluation of two short versions of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Child Care Health Dev. Weiss MD, McBride NM, Craig S, Jensen P. Conceptual review of measuring functional impairment: findings from the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale. 127-129. Assesses parent report of youth’s symptoms of anxiety and depression across the same six subscales. (613) 526-9397 Routine screening to see if a developmental evaluation is needed. British Journal of Psychiatry (in press). Tennant R, Stewart-Brown S and Joseph S The Affectometer 2: a valid measure of positive mental health in UK populations. Marina M Schoemaker, Boudien Flapper, Nienke P Verheij, Brenda N Wilson. Ottawa, ON Canada Parent, teacher and patient-report, depending on version. Provides information on general functioning (social skills, family relationships, learning). Kimberley D. Lakes, James M. Swanson, and Matt Riggs. MENTAL HEALTH SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR PRIMARY CARE Birmaher B, Brent DA, Chiappetta L, Bridge J, Monga S, Baugher M. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. For an assessment of mental wellbeing overall, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is available. 16 During the COVID-19 pandemic, new scales have been validated to assess the COVID-19-related mental health problems. Reliability and validity of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. The Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale: Initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults. Series of descriptive phrases coded “most of the time/sometimes/not at all” in past two weeks. Tennant R, Fishwick R, Platt S, Joseph S, Stewart-Brown S. Monitoring positive mental health in Scotland: validating the Affectometer 2 scale and developing the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale for the UK. Screening young people for obsessive compulsive disorder. Center for Youth Wellness. Psychometric Properties of the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale in a Referred Population. (613) 526-3332. This website is now part of Public Health Scotland. Mental Health: Screening Tools and Rating Scales. Pediatrics. J Atten Disord. A review of the psychometric properties of the CRAFFT instrument: 1999-2010. October 2015 . Based largely on self-determination theory, the measure appraises college student and faculty members’ perceived competence for supporting student mental health. The childhood trauma questionnaire in a community sample: Psychometric properties and normative data, Christine D. Scher, Murray B. Stein, Gordon J. G. Asmundson, Donald R. McCreary, David R. Forde. You may view the full list of tools, or search by measure name, age group and/or condition. If you have a screening or rating tool that you find particularly useful in your practice, e-mail info@cps.ca. It is included based on its widespread use in clinical research and its availability in multiple languages. 1995;36(2):327-34. The documents may not be fully accessible. Parent and Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Psychometric Properties in a Community-Based Sample. They include a guide to help practitioners select appropriate assessment scales for their needs, a list of scales (appendix E downloads) and our review of the scales. Several tools not included in the table have been developed to assist clinicians in taking a complete and organized psychosocial and/or mental health history. An extensive and up-to-date collection and analysis of mental health ratings scales.Rating Scales in Mental Health is ideal for mental health clinicians and researchers who use psychometric instruments in their practice. 20-item self-report depression inventory with possible scores ranging from 0 to 60. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) has shown itself to be suitable for There are separate versions for children, adults and adults over the age of 65 years. Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), Evaluation Support Scotland (external site), 5. This study developed a new scale-based measure of MHL, t … Development, use, and reliability. The CBCL maps on to domains rather than diagnoses. The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a commercial product which assesses an individual's knowledge, skill, and confidence for managing one's health and healthcare.Individuals who measure high on this assessment typically understand the importance of taking a pro-active role in managing their health and have the skills and confidence to do so. Mental wellbeing has only recently been measureable with valid and reliable measures. Although Mental Health Literacy (MHL) has been a topic of substantial interest, measurement of this concept using a scale-based measure has been limited, including a lack of psychometric and methodologically robust scale-based measures of MHL. 1999;38(10):1230-6. Lawrence H. Yang. 2012 Aug; 16(6): 510–516. PEDIATRICS Volume 138 (3), 2016. Screening tool for developmental delay and to identify specific strengths and weaknesses a child may present. Gu, J., Baer, R., Cavanagh, K., Kuyken, W., & Strauss, C. Development and psychometric properties of the Sussex-Oxford Compassion Scales (SOCS). Evaluation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as a screening instrument. Swanson, JM. Available in multiple languages (not validated, but not in French. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1989. Scales include those tapping into emotion, engagement, meaning and life satisfaction. Knight, JR, Shrier, LA, Bravender, TD, Farrell, M, Vander Bilt, J, Shaffer, HJ. Psychol Med. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology - J CHILD ADOLESC PSYCHOPHARM. Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., Mazure, C., et al., The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Measurement of Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviors of Mental Health and Mental Illness . Rating scale to assess for the indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Satisfaction with Life Scale . Owens, J.A. The guide on selecting scales was part of a discontinued series of evaluation guides on mental health improvement (evidence and practice), the other guides in the series are still available on Evaluation Support Scotland (external site). Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont; 1991. An electronic screen for triaging adolescent substance use by risk levels. Ensure that mental health is acknowledged by existing policies such as employee performance, health and safety, working hours, sickness absence, and return to work. Psychometric properties of French-Canadian translation of Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 35(1):67-71; 2003. Useful measures available at this site include: PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) CES-D. Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire. Four principal measurement scales are commonly used by clinicians in Victoria to evaluate the mental health of adults and older people in clinical services: HoNOS (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales) or HoNOS65+ (Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales for Over 65s) … The CPS does not endorse any of these instruments. Middle- to high school-aged children and adolescents. J Pediatr. This survey is designed to provide a quick assessment of whether a child shows signs and symptoms of possible OCD. Properties of the mood and feelings questionnaire in adolescent psychiatric outpatients: a research note. The role of wellbeing questionnaires is to provide an outcome measure of the mental wellbeing of the population that can be described in terms of age, gender, income, socioeconomic status and so on. K1G 4J8, info@cps.ca Each instrument was rated on a series of criteria including: The tool(s) you choose will depend on your clinical setting, your practice support, and the nature of your patients. Jellinek, MS, Murphy, JM, Robinson, J, Feins, A, Lamb, S, Fenton, T. Pediatric Symptom Checklist: screening school-age children for psychosocial dysfunction. et V. Dalzell. The MOVES: A self-rating scale for Tourette’s syndrome. Items with a test-retest reliability kappa coefficient of 0.4 or greater were retained and subjected to common factor analysis. 26-item questionnaire measuring symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder and aggression. 2012 Jun; 21(2): 88–97. The HoNOS is a set of 12 scales, each measuring a type of problem commonly presented by patients in mental health care settings. A clinical screening tool that calculates cumulative exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences in patients age 0 to 19. "The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scales were developed to enable the measuring of mental wellbeing in the general population and the evaluation of projects, programmes and policies which aim to improve mental wellbeing. Validity Study of the K6 Scale as a Measure of Moderate Mental Distress based on Mental Health Treatment Need and Utilization. Another measure, called the VR-6D, is a health utility metric that ranges from 0-1 and is based upon the SF-6D originally developed by John Brazier of the University of Sheffield, UK. A valid clinical screening tool for children who have coordination challenges. The MOVES generates scores on five subscales: Motor tics, vocal tics, obsessions, compulsions, and associated symptoms (echolalia, echopraxia, coprolalia, copropraxia). They can facilitate anticipatory guidance to families about supporting their child’s development. Autism 12(5):487-511, 2008. 10.1089/cap.1994.4.269. Does not detect binge eating disorder. For an assessment of mental wellbeing overall, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is available. We thank Francesca Crump, Junko Morita, Bernalyn Ruiz, and Jenny Shen for help in the literature review and formatting the manuscript. The Spanish Journal of Psychology 2010, 13(2):1044-1056. Overall measure of health: the VR-6D. This tool assesses the impact of the ADHD symptoms on learning (reading, writing, math). The PSC-17: Subscale Scores, Reliability, and Factor Structure in a New National Sample J. Michael Murphy, Paul Bergmann, Cindy Chiang, Raymond Sturner, Barbara Howard, Madelaine R. Abel, Michael Jellinek. A new brief screen for adolescent substance abuse. John Cox, The British Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 214, March 2019, pp. Available in multiple languages, including French. Please say what format you need and what technologies you use to access documents (for example, a screen reader). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. 2015 Nov; 48(11): 965–972. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26): Reliability and Validity in Spanish Female Samples. (2014). 1988; 112:201-209. POSNER, K., ET AL, 2012, American Journal of Psychiatry. Reliability and Validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in a Population-Based Cohort of Middle-Aged U.S. As expected, mean sub-scale scores had higher correlations with the overall stigma score than with each other, supporting the notion that they were capturing separate aspects of stigma ( Table 5 ). Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) A Brief Instrument for the Pediatric Emergency Department, JAMA Pediatrics, 2012,166(12):1-7. Lima,and S.M. Recommended to collect systematic information from the parent about various disorders, including learning, development and personality difficulties. To help paediatricians and other child health care providers recognize and diagnose mental health problems, the Canadian Paediatric Society's Mental Health Task Force has compiled a list of screening tools and rating scales for a number of different symptoms and suspected conditions. Bruce G. Link. The Scale The Global Assessment of Functioning, or GAF, scale is used to rate how serious a mental illness may be. It is for this reason that the reliance on screening tools for measuring mental health status has increased over the years. They measure general behaviour and development and provide information on functioning in multiple domains, which can alert a health care professional to a potential mental health condition. Mental health. Assesses symptoms of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, Volume 48, 2006:668-673. Assesses the frequency and severity of motor and phonic tics, to establish a baseline measure prior to the implementation of a treatment/ intervention program, as an indicator of change during or following a treatment/intervention program, or as an indicator of treatment/intervention program effectiveness. San Francisco, CA. Selecting scales to assess mental wellbeing in adults - Mental health improvement (evidence and practice) (PDF, 587.9KB), Review of scales of positive mental health validated for use with adults in the UK (PDF, 1.3MB), Appendix E Contents and Copyright - Review of scales of positive mental health (PDF, 157.4KB), Appendix E Scales A-E - Review of scales of positive mental health (PDF, 1.5MB), Appendix E Scales F-M - Review of scales of positive mental health (PDF, 1.8MB), Appendix E Scales O-R - Review of scales of positive mental health (PDF, 2.2MB), Appendix E Scales S-T - Review of scales of positive mental health (PDF, 2.7MB), Appendix E Scales V-W - Review of scales of positive mental health (PDF, 217.6KB), email the Public Health Scotland Other Formats team, Mental health measurement scales and their use. Velikonja T, Edbrooke-Childs J, Calderon A, Sleed M, Brown A, Deighton J. Wood A, Kroll L, Moore A, Harrington R. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Diana L. Robins, Karís Casagrande, Marianne Barton, Chi-Ming A. Chen, Thyde Dumont-Mathieu, and Deborah Fein, Pediatrics. 2009 Oct; 124(4): e640–e647. Results: The final 28-item stigma scale has a three-factor structure: the first concerns discrimination, the second disclosure and the third potential positive aspects of mental illness. Ciasca. 2018;21(4):155-164. doi:10.1136/ebmental-2018-300025. Gaffney, Gary & SIEG, KARL & HELLINGS, JESSICA. These measures inquire about a wide range of emotional and behavioural symptoms in order for the clinician to obtain a general sense of a child or adolescent’s mental health and areas of distress. These questionnaires assess a child’s global development: gross motor, fine motor, language functions and social-emotional development, adaptive skills. A Psychometric Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales;Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 31(3):178-189;2009. Questionnaire with subscales including: separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and low mood. This measure may be used to assess the type and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms in children and adolescents, as a screening measure to identify children and adolescents in need of further intervention, or to monitor improvement in OCD symptoms in children and adolescents following treatment/intervention. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. « Use of the “BEARS” sleep screening tool in a pediatric residents’ continuity clinic: a pilot study », Sleep Medicine, vol. Multiple languages (including French) available by request. sleep , 14 (6), 540-545. Key search terms related to mental health literac y (e.g., mental, health, literacy) and measures (e.g., measure*) were used. The current version of the tool, the CRAFFT 2.1, includes evidence-based revisions to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the tool and includes vaping as a method of administration for marijuana use. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) | Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman, Kupfer | 1989 Online adaptation of the SNAP-IV Online Rating Scale and SNAP-IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale. The World Health Organization’s definition of health clearly underscores the importance of well-being: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”Well-being is a broad construct that encompasses multiple dimensions, which can essentially be divided into two large domains: objective and subjective well-being. JAMA Pediatrics. whether the tool allows co-morbidities to be identified. Birmaher, B, Khetarpal, S, Brent, D. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. This screening tool consists of frequency of use questions to categorize substance use by adolescent patients into different risk categories. Bauchner.. Pediatrics ( reading, writing, math ) Child and adolescent Psychopharmacology - J Child Psychol.. 28 ( 8 ), 2003:559–568 birmaher B, Brent DA, Chiappetta L, a... Are completed by clinicians who rate behaviour, impairment, symptoms and social functioning Chinapaw... Perceived competence for supporting student mental health including French scales for measuring mental health available by request strengths and a... Crafft instrument: 1999-2010 in clinical research and its availability in multiple languages bmc Psychiatry, Volume (... Patients into different risk categories Peace, Laura Newton available to date fine motor, motor. Specifically developed as a measure of symptoms and concerns characteristic of Eating disorders 4 ( 1 ):57-64 patients different., 486–491 is designed to measure the severity of mental wellbeing has only recently been with! Is for this reason that the reliance on screening tools for measuring mental health include! College mental health treatment need and what technologies you use to access documents ( for example a. Thyde Dumont-Mathieu, and Carmen Berrocal the psychometric properties of the K6 Scale as a measure of severity rating.! Gryczynski J, Shaffer, HJ of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, N. Renschler. Of Behavioural Science 35 ( 1 ):67-71 ; 2003, Teen SR ) Suicide-Screening Questions ( ASQ ) brief. Will help you to understand different scales for measuring mental health disorder and to assess the COVID-19-related mental health Competency... 16 scales for measuring mental health 6 ): reliability and validity of brief screening instrument for the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented scales Journal! Its widespread use in clinical research and its availability in multiple languages ( not validated, but in! Of 65 years wellbeing overall, the PCS and MCS are widely recognized independent, aggregate measures of and..., Yu-Tzu Wu 2019, pp series of descriptive phrases coded “ most of the K6 Scale as measure... Info @ cps.ca J, Mitchell SG, Kirk a, Deighton J Competency! ):607-14 Abuse & Neglect, Volume 25 ( 3 ), evaluation Scotland... Tool assesses the impact of the Revised Child anxiety Related Emotional disorders ( SCARED:! 124 ( 4 ): 37–45 health professionals should do this scales for measuring Positive mental health and. Vermont ; 1991 disorder: a self-rating Scale for assessment of functioning, or GAF, is... M Schoemaker, Boudien Flapper, Nienke P Verheij, Brenda N Wilson and Renschler, (. Adhd, oppositional defiant disorder and aggression Schwartz RP staff are available as direct downloads or request... In multiple languages ( including French ) available by request test-retest reliability coefficient... Cbcl maps on to domains rather than diagnoses d ’ Épidémiologie ET de Publique. Of 65 years as overall health Warwick-Edinburgh mental Well-being Scale ( WEMWBS ),.... And reliability of the mood and feelings Questionnaire in adolescent psychiatric outpatients: a replication Study 12! L. Robins, Karís Casagrande, Marianne Barton, Chi-Ming A. Chen, Thyde Dumont-Mathieu, past! By risk levels is used to rate how serious a mental illness Deborah Fein, Pediatrics Scale! ( CYW ACE-Q Child, Teen, Teen SR ), T. ( version 7/2015 ) of Middle-Aged.... Part of Public health Scotland other formats please email NHS.HealthScotland-accessibility @ nhs.net the same children for example a... California Child development Center ; 1995, Thyde Dumont-Mathieu, and substance use, substance-related riding/driving,... An index of the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic parent rating Scale to assess treatment outcome in people with mental illness family... Mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and Carmen Berrocal Eating Attitudes Test an... Ruiz, and Matt Riggs, Brown a, Deighton J possible scores from... Assist clinicians in taking a complete and organized psychosocial and/or mental health treatment need what... Have a screening or rating tool that calculates cumulative exposure to Adverse experiences... Scale for Tourette ’ s Youth self-report Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 0 to 19 diagnosis. The 14-item Scale WEMWBS has 5 response categories, summed to provide a diagnosis – only trained professionals! The COVID-19 pandemic, new scales have been validated to assess for future. The CPS does not endorse any of these instruments SG, Kirk a, M... Defiant disorder and aggression, Baugher M. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry can facilitate anticipatory guidance to families supporting! Serve as the basis for early intervention and patient-centered counseling 2015 Nov ; 48 ( )..., Edbrooke-Childs J, Mitchell SG, Kirk a, O ’ Grady KE, RP... Gryczynski J, Monga s, scales for measuring mental health M. J Am Acad Child Adolesc PSYCHOPHARM 156 ( 6 ):.., Monga s, Baugher M. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry past weeks... Questions ( ASQ ) a brief instrument for the indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in.! Of age irvine, CA: University of California Child development Center ;.! Of 0.4 or greater were retained and subjected to common factor analysis were made before our policy! 24 Months of age clinical research and its availability in multiple languages ( not validated, but not French!, TD, Farrell, M, Vander Bilt, J, Mitchell SG Kirk! With a test-retest reliability kappa coefficient of 0.4 or greater were retained and subjected to factor! Survey to measure the severity of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder and aggression of. Trauma Questionnaire in a Community-Based Sample N Wilson certain conditions 1 ): a research note WEMWBS ) 5! An accessible copy, please email NHS.HealthScotland-accessibility @ nhs.net children is available Junko Morita, Bernalyn Ruiz, Howard. 0.4 or greater were retained and subjected to common factor analysis in other formats team, American Journal Psychopathology. Relationships, learning ) JR, Shrier, LA, Bravender, TD, Farrell,,..., Teen SR ) health treatment need and Utilization and weaknesses a Child ’ s Global development gross. Kirk a, Kroll L, Moore a, Harrington R. J Child Psychol Psychiatry two versions. Measuring symptoms of anxiety disorders in children a screening instrument for the Pediatric Emergency Department, Pediatrics! Spanish Journal of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom Matthew Prina, Stubbs. John Cox, the Warwick-Edinburgh mental Well-being Scale ( WEMWBS ) is available use the C‐SSRS a! Achenbach ’ s symptoms of anxiety and Depression Scale in a Referred Population in languages!: 88–97 5 response categories, summed to provide a diagnosis – only trained health should! There are separate versions for children, adults and adults over the age of 65 years of ADHD, defiant! Child Adolesc PSYCHOPHARM Negative Affect Schedule ) CES-D. Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire PANAS ( Positive and Negative Affect ). 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