Surviving from the treasure of Chief Rumanika of…, In Central Africa, Lakes Victoria, Albert, Tanganyika, and Nyasa exhibit substantial long-term features, some of which are consistent, suggesting that a common climatological factor is responsible. Lake Victoria (at 68 000 km 2, Africa’s largest lake, the world’s largest tropical lake and the world’s second largest freshwater lake is a shared lake with basin countries of …  During its geological history, Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression, through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes.  Such adaptions include a larger gill area (adaption for oxygen-poor water), changes in the feeding apparatus, changes to the eyes (giving them a better sight in turbid water) and smaller head/larger caudal peduncle (allowing faster swimming).  Although these have contributed to the extinction of native fish by causing significant changes to the ecosystem, outcompeted natives and (in the case of the Nile tilapia) possibly hybridized with the highly threatened native tilapias, the most infamous introduction was the large and highly predatory Nile perch (Lates niloticus).  This may increase as a result of the spread of the invasive water hyacinth (an optimum snail habitat), and the loss of many snail-eating cichlids in the lake. Its waters fill a shallow depression in the centre of the great plateau that stretches between the Western and Eastern Rift Valleys. In addition to the biogas it produces, its by-product can be used as fertilizer. Without oxygen, any aerobic life (such as fish) cannot exist in the deeper parts of the lake, forcing all life to exist within a narrow range of depth. There are local steamer services around the lake.  As a result of predation by the introduced Nile perch, eutrophication and other changes to the ecosystem, it is estimated that at least 200 species (about 40 percent) of Lake Victoria haplochromines have become extinct, including more than 100 undescribed species. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. In addition, it's the largest tropical lake in the world, and the planet's second largest freshwater lake. It borders the countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Join now. Nevertheless, others of these features are not consistent within the lakes and have not been adequately explained.…. Tanzania Suitable access points to lake Victoria from Tanzania are Bukoba, Mwanza and Msoma. world's longest river. It borders the countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. The first recorded information about Lake Victoria comes from Arab traders plying the inland routes in search of gold, ivory, other precious commodities, and slaves. Learn more about the cichlids of Lake Victoria. The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder river for Lake Victoria, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera, and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.. Warmolts (25 May 2015). Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (2016). The overall effects of the water hyacinth, however, are still unknown. People rely on it for food, water, and many other things. , The non-cichlid native fish include African tetras (Brycinus), cyprinids (Enteromius, Garra, Labeo, Labeobarbus, Rastrineobola and Xenobarbus), airbreathing catfish (Clariallabes, Clarias and Xenoclarias), bagrid catfish (Bagrus), loach catfish (Amphilius and Zaireichthys), silver butter catfish (Schilbe intermedius), Synodontis squeaker catfish, Nothobranchius killifish, poeciliids (Aplocheilichthys and Micropanchax), the spiny eel Mastacembelus frenatus, elephantfish (Gnathonemus, Hippopotamyrus, Marcusenius, Mormyrus, Petrocephalus, and Pollimyrus), the climbing gourami Ctenopoma muriei and marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus). The water is then ready to be chlorinated or treated in another way. It was the site of a fishing boom in the 1980s and 90s when the world paid huge money for its Nile perch and tilapia fish. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Victoria Nyanza. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Geologically, Lake Victoria is relatively young at about 400,000 years old. People rely on it for food, water, and many other things. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. About this Quiz. (2006). Among the freshwater lakes of the world, it is exceeded in size only by Lake Superior in North America. Interesting Facts about Lake Victoria 6: the division of Lake Victoria. Lake Victoria, also called Victoria Nyanza, largest lake in Africa and chief reservoir of the Nile, lying mainly in Tanzania and Uganda but bordering on Kenya. The lake existed and was known to many Africans in the catchment area long before it was sighted by a European in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the Great Lakes. At the lake’s northwestern corner are the 62 islands of the Sese archipelago, some of them of striking beauty. The water hyacinth has become a major invasive plant species in Lake Victoria. , As early as the 1920s, it was proposed to introduce a large pelagic predator such as the Nile perch to improve the fisheries in the lake. The abundance of aquatic life is not the only dependent of the lake: more than thirty million people in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda rely on the lake for its natural resources. Although it is a part of the same river system known as the White Nile and is occasionally referred to as such, strictly speaking this name does not apply until after the river crosses the Uganda border into South Sudan to the north. McAndrews, R. and D.I. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper.. A standard for mimicking the old rate of outflow called the "agreed curve" was established, setting the maximum flow rate at 300 to 1,700 cubic metres per second (392–2,224 cu yd/sec) depending on the lake's water level. The Land, the Races and their Customs, with Specimens of Some of the Dialects", "How feud wrecked the reputation of explorer who discovered Nile's source", "Origin of the Superflock of Cichlid Fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa", "Deoxygenation of the deep water of Lake Victoria, East Africa", Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie, "Environmental and Social Management Framework-ESMF", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T60668A97125826.en, "Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T185857A8492470.en, "Prevalence of disruptive selection predicts extent of species differentiation in Lake Victoria cichlids", "Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania", "A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids". The Ugandan cities of Kampala and Entebbe lie along or near the northern coast. LVRLACC has a current membership of 113 local authorities cutting across three countries namely Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda that share Lake Victoria, with prospective membership from Burundi and Rwanda. Now let's learn about Africa's other 8 largest lakes in Africa. The Victoria Nyanza and Its Fisheries: A Report on the Fish Survey of Lake Victoria 1927–1928 and Appendices. (2008).  There are 17 species of bivalves (Corbicula, Coelatura, Sphaerium, and Byssanodonta), including 6 endemic species/subspecies.  In the Kenya sector, the main influent rivers are the Sio, Nzoia, Yala, Nyando, Sondu Miriu, Mogusi, and Migori. Lake Victoria is a destination for a number of tourist activities in the countries where it is shared. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lake-Victoria, University of Texas, Dallas - Lake Victoria, UN-Water Activity Information System - Lake Victoria, Victoria, Lake - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Lake Victoria - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Lake Victoria (or Victoria Nyanza in the Bantu language) is the largest of the African Great Lakes, the largest lake in Africa and the world’s second largest freshwater lake by surface area, after Lake Superior. Interesting Facts about Lake Victoria 6: the division of Lake Victoria.  The Williams' mud turtle is restricted to Lake Victoria and other lakes, rivers, and swamps in the upper Nile basin. London: Crown Agents for the Colonies. Coinciding anti-racist protests sweeping the world, the clamor is growing in Africa to rename Lake Victoria which lies in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. Njoka. The release of large amounts of untreated wastewater (sewage) and agricultural and industrial runoff directly into Lake Victoria over the past 30 years has greatly increased the nutrient levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake "triggering massive growth of exotic water hyacinth, which colonised the lake in the late 1990s". the layer of water that lies below the thermocline, is noncirculating, and remains perpetually cold) were lower in 1990–1991 for a longer period than in 1960–1961, with values of less than 1 mg per litre (< 0.4 gr/cu ft) occurring in water as shallow as 40 metres (130 ft) compared with a shallowest occurrence of greater than 50 metres (160 ft) in 1961. "The Rise and Fall of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River Basin, 1989-2001". In his official report of the expedition, Graham wrote that "The ngege or satu Tilapia esculenta, is the most important food fish of the lake, whether for native or non-native consumption. Click on the tags below to find other quizzes on the same subject.  Initially the population of the Nile perch was relatively low, but a drastic increase happened, peaking in the 1980s, followed by a decline starting in the 1990s.. , Many mammal species live in the region of Lake Victoria, and some of these are closely associated with the lake itself and the nearby wetlands. Corrections?  The lake has a shoreline of 7,142 km (4,438 mi) when digitized at the 1:25,000 level, with islands constituting 3.7% of this length.  Among the introductions are several tilapias: redbreast (Coptodon rendalli), redbelly (C. zillii), Nile (Oreochromis niloticus) and blue-spotted tilapias (O.  In recent history only Lake Kyoga was easily accessible to Victoria cichlids, as further downstream movement by the Victoria Nile (to Lake Albert) is prevented by a series of waterfalls, notably Murchison. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. In 1927-1928 Michael Graham conducted the first ever systematic Fisheries Survey of Lake Victoria. Many archipelagos are contained within the lake, as are numerous reefs, often just below the surface of the clear waters. Overall, the timing of the decline could be linked to all of these factors and perhaps together, in combination, they were more effective than any one deterrent would have been by itself. The only outflow for Lake Victoria is at Jinja, Uganda, where it forms the Victoria Nile. The exception is Lake Kivu, which is part of the present-day Congo River basin, but is believed to have been connected to Lakes Edward and Victoria by rivers until the uplifting of parts of the East African Rift. It is convenient size for trade, travels well and is found in much greater numbers than other important fish, such as semutundu (Luganda), Bagrus sp.". Lake Victoria is the most important freshwater storage reservoir in East Africa, with about 40 million people depending on its resources. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the lake and its surrounding areas were threatened by the consequences of overfishing as well as by ecological damage from pollution and invasive species such as the Nile perch and water hyacinth. The water since at least 12,000 years ago drained across a natural rock weir. It is Africa's largest lake, and the second largest fresh water lake in the world. The countries will lead you to a complete list of the members in a given country and their brief profile. The lake rests between three countries namely, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Lake Victoria covers more than 68,800 square km and is the lifeblood for the people of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda who rely on its waters to service its huge fishing industry. Ask your question. Its shores are dotted with key cities and towns, including Kisumu, Kisii, and Homa Bay in Kenya; Kampala, Jinja and Entebbe in Uganda; and Bukoba, Mwanza, and Musoma in Tanzania.  Because of its small size, the abundant open-water Lake Victoria sardine only supported minor fisheries until the decline of other natives.  Their extraordinary diversity and speed of evolution have been the subjects for many scientists studying the forces that drive the richness of life everywhere. The giant lake borders three African countries - Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, with half of the lake lying in Tanzania. Lake Victoria is located in east central Africa along the equator. The lake exhibits eutrophic conditions. Lake Victoria is known to be 2nd largest fresh water lake, and is the source of the White Nile river. European Investment Bank started the project in 2013 with the aim of protecting the environmental health of the lake, through improved water and sanitation to the towns whose pollution is part of the degradation of the lake. Due to the presence of the Nile perch, the natural balance of the lake's ecosystem has been disrupted. Conversely, genetic studies indicate that some morphologically distinctive populations, traditionally regarded as separate species, may only be variants of single species. Join now. Lake Victoria is shared among three countries in Africa. In the Kenyan port… Hundreds of endemic species that evolved under the special conditions offered by the protection of Lake Victoria have been lost due to extinction, and several more are still threatened. CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (. Because of this, most of Lake Victoria's nutrients are thought to be locked up in lake-bottom deposits. The lake has a surface area of 68,800 square kilometers (or 26,600 square miles), which also makes it the world’s largest tropical lake. Lake Victoria. The lake would dry by its self. Freshwater biodiversity in the Lake Victoria Basin: Guidance for species conservation, site protection. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to counteract against the rapidly deteriorating water quality in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). 1998. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa.. Lake Victoria is 68,800 square kilometres (26,560 mi²) in size, making it the continent's largest lake, the largest tropical lake in the world, and the second largest fresh water lake in the world in terms of surface area. The lake rests between three countries namely, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). ", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60318A47182908.en. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after Queen Victoria. It’s shared by the three east African countries of Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya.  It is likely that undescribed species of snails remain. And that is why we are interested in how much is being abstracted by those countries” Tindimugaya explained. The fertility of tropical waters depends on the rate at which nutrients can be brought into solution. With ten countries in the Nile A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day, but also much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery.. 1. Where is Serengeti National Park? Lake Victoria is a 139-hectare (340-acre) shallow saline lake on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria in Australia, close to the township of Point Lonsdale and part of the Lonsdale Lakes Nature Reserve administered by Parks Victoria.  The last were first scientifically described in 2017 and very little is known about them: P. entebbe is only known from near Entebbe (the only known specimen was collected in 1955 and it is unknown if it was in or near the lake) and P. busungwe only at Busungwe Island in the northwestern part of the lake. Lake Victoria was called after its namesake, Queen Victoria, following its discovery by British explorer, John Speke in 1858.  Some of these, including tilapia and ningu (Labeo victorianus), had already declined in the first half of the 20th century due to overfishing. Lake Victoria, shared by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, was named after the Queen of England and is the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest freshwater lake. Njoka. Human infections by this parasite are common at Lake Victoria. With a surface area of 68,800 sq km (26,600 sq mi), Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake.  A green power plant that uses harvested water hyacinth (but also can use other degradable waste) was constructed in Kisumu County in 2013.  Furthermore, Graham noted that the introduction of the European flax gill net of 5 inch mesh had undoubtedly caused a diminution in the number of ngege in those parts of the Kavirondo Gulf, the northern shore of the lake, the Sesse Islands and Smith's Sound which are conveniently situated close to markets. Lake Victoria, the second largest lake in the world and one of the sources of the Nile River, is one of the most important trans-boundary natural resource in Africa. In the late 1860s, the famous Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke's discovery, instead pushing too far west and entering the River Congo system instead. It is located in East Africa between the countries Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. However, the most distal source of the Nile Basin, and therefore the ultimate source of the Nile, is more often considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River (the exact tributary remains undetermined), and which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi.  These changes have arisen for multiple reasons: successive burning within its basin, soot and ash from which has been deposited over the lake's wide area; from increased nutrient inflows via rivers, and from increased pollution associated with settlement along its shores. For a relaxing, pleasurable lake vacation in East Africa, we recommend a visit to Lake Victoria, the largest of the Great African Lakes and the second largest freshwater lake in the world. With a surface area of just under 70 000 km², Lake Victoria not only dominates this part of East Africa but ranks as the second largest freshwater lake in the world. Km. Lake Victoria and climate change The project is in line with the Protocol for Sustainable Development of Lake Victoria Basin; Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) Strategic Plan 2011 – 2016; the participating countries CSPs; and the Bank’s RISP for East Africa.  By itself, this vegetative matter decays slowly. Updates? Lake Victoria is located in east central Africa along the equator. Fiedler, P.L. Today, the lake and its resources fuel the economies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Study shows evolution does not always mean more diversification. Lake Victoria (also known as Victoria Nyanza), is the largest lake in Africa and the second largest freshwater lake on earth. Lake Victoria is located on the continent of Africa and it is divided among 3 African countries. Uganda Access points to Lake Victoria from Uganda include Kampala, Jinja & Entebbe. In contrast, the Owen Falls (now flooded by a dam) between Victoria and Kyoga were essentially a series of rapids that did not effectively block fish movements between the two lakes. Its area is 26,828 square miles (69,484 square km). tvlu5044 07.12.2018 History Secondary School +5 pts. The lake’s deeply indented northern coast is flat and bare. As a by-product of this the oxygen levels in the deeper layer of water are being depleted. With a surface area of 68,800 sq km (26,600 sq mi), Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake. Uganda General Information Map of Uganda Kampala Kibale National Park Queen Elizabeth National Park Murchison Falls National Park Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. The Kagera River, the largest and most important of the lake affluents, enters the western side of Lake Victoria just north of latitude 1° S. The only other river of note entering from the west is the Katonga, north of Kagera. 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