The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5, , CD010538. Comfrey leaf is also high in tannins, giving it astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Comfrey is a perennial plant which divides easily. Comfrey is best used for treating broken bones, damaged ligaments, and tendons, and healing small wounds. It grows as a root stick with branches coming from the stalk and only gets to about 2–3 feet tall. Affiliate links are shared throughout the website and the Herbal Academy may receive compensation if you make a purchase with these links. Saturated PAs are considered non-toxic, while unsaturated PAs are considered toxic (Hoffmann, 2003). Comfrey will provide the bees with plenty of forage. Next, herbalists lean toward using preparations made from the larger, more mature leaves, which are known to contain fewer PAs than younger leaves and roots. Can and should one use comfrey (Symphytum spp.) Drink plenty of fluid and rest. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. Since a chemical in isolation behaves differently than when present in a whole plant, rats are different than humans, different routes of administration can affect toxicity, and it is sometimes unclear which comfrey species (. ) Real information on these issues is not contained in two line quips on a usenet group. It has a tap root similar to dandelions. (Note that Mei et al. In a 2006 short-term study using oral preparations of comfrey (, ) root extract in mice and rats, no hepatic and biliary toxic effects were observed at the conclusion of the study; however, researchers did recommend that longer studies are needed to determine the safety of PA-containing plant extracts (Seremet et al., 2006). Use comfrey leaves for mulch; their broad leaves cover a wide area. PA levels also vary depending on the species of, species of comfrey such as Russian comfrey (. ) Your comments however simply constitute part of the problem of scaremongering, not part of the solution. It is often used to slow bleeding and drainage from tissues and to tighten and tone relaxed tissues. Comfrey’s leaf and root both have many beneficial qualities and uses. (2013). ), not all PAs are toxic. Comfrey contains chemicals that can cause liver damage, lung problems, or cancer. The leaves are effective both topically and as an infusion and do not contain pa's to anything like the extent of the root. In the compost pile, comfrey leaves help speed the decomposition of tree leaves, grass clippings and other organic materials. So, it is with that background that i ask for your input on a critical permaculture issue: embracing comfrey. The Herbal Academy neither endorses them nor is in any way responsible for their content. Comfrey is the common name for a perennial called S ymphytum officinale which grows quickly in zones 4-9, produces lots of large leaves and has pink or white flowers which are not overly ornamental. Because comfrey plants grow so rapidly, feel free to harvest the leaves several times a season. Chug a big bottle of Bacardi 151 Rum, and you die. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Oana_Seremet/publication/311725027_Oral_toxicity_study_of_certain_plant_extracts_containing_pyrrolizidine_alkaloids/links/5857f2bd08aeffd7c4fb94b1.pdf. Date: 27 May 1995 23:04:09 +0100. internally? Both the roots and leaves of comfrey help in organic gardening. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Dosages of Comfrey: Historically daily doses of leaf ranged from 5 … Comfrey, Symphytum uplandica x Herbal Adventures with Susun S Weed by Susun S. Weed read other Herbal Adventures part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4 . Romanian Journal of Morphology & Embryology, 57(3), 1017-1023. Pleasant Hill, OR: Wise Acres Publishing. While comfrey is an herb with a long history of many different uses, its internal use has become quite controversial due to scientific studies, some dating back 40-60 years, that revealed potentially harmful effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (Moreira et al., 2018), which are found in comfrey. Since a chemical in isolation behaves differently than when present in a whole plant, rats are different than humans, different routes of administration can affect toxicity, and it is sometimes unclear which comfrey species (S. officinale or S. uplandicum) was used, there is dissension among herbalists regarding this decision and whether comfrey is indeed toxic to a healthy human (Hoffmann, 2003) when used in appropriate dosages and frequencies. It thrives in moist places. Comfrey is likley unsafe to take by mouth. Newsgroups: alt.folklore.herbs Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis. spp. The essential guide to herbal safety. Dilute the comfrey plant food with water by half before you apply to plants. While both comfrey leaf and root are well known for their mucilage content and associated demulcent action, the root is more demulcent than the leaf. The root has much more of the toxic chemicals than the leaf; Comfrey leaves contain about 0.06% alkaloids, and roots about 0.2 to 0.4%” . To make an ointment to use externally, take 1 cup of finely cut comfrey root and simmer in 1 cup of olive oil until it starts to soften. On the other hand, other studies using rats that were given isolated PAs from comfrey root or young leaf, both of which have higher levels of PAs than mature comfrey leaf (Mills & Bone, 2005), have shown to be toxic when given in both low and high concentrations (Mei et al., 2005; Yeong et al., 1993). used, While it can be helpful for herbalists to take these studies into account, it should be noted that the majority of research involved isolating PAs and injecting them at various concentrations, often very high concentrations, into rats. This is the biggest difference between natural vs… (2013). Comfrey poultices should be left in place for several hours (overnight is ideal). Mutagenicity of comfrey (. Common comfrey is found escaped from cultivation in all New England states. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 74, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Please add your email address below and click "Submit" to add yourself to our mailing list. It is believed that the pyrrole-like intermediates damage sinusoidal and epithelial cells, which occludes blood flow to the liver tissue, eventually resulting in tissue death (Mills & Bone, 2005). Both have medicinal properties but the root is believed to be better because it has a higher concentration of potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon. However, as we’ve come to learn more about PAs and their effects on human and animal health, some herbalists have changed their approach to using PA-containing herbs, including comfrey. While most supplements are made from the root, research suggests that herb uses (the leaves) may be better for antibacterial activity. (Eds.). Please simply create an account before buying/booking any courses. A sterile cultivar is frequently planted in gardens, somewhat reducing the probability of escape, although it easily spreads from root fragments. ), not all PAs are toxic. Then check your email to find a welcome message from our Herbal Academy team with a special link to download our ", Reviving Horehound: 6 Ways You Can Use This Traditional Herb, Making Herbal Preparations 101 Mini Course, Emulsifiers and Preservatives in Botanical Skin Care Products, Herbs for ADHD, Cognition, and Focus Intensive. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. (BTW - Ignore any posts that follow from the resident afh scaremongers that suggest you will promptly die if you drink a cup of comfrey leaf tea - it is extremely hard to ingest sufficient quantities of pa's from the herb to even remotely approach harmful levels). It's been online since 1995, and is run by Henriette Kress, a herbalist in Helsinki, Finland. While the comfrey plant has its roots in Europe, it grows in many areas of the world. Read my notes in the FAQ for a starter. The high content of antioxidants, as well as vitamin C, makes comfrey pastes and salves the ideal solution for speeding up the healing of wounds. British Journal of Cancer, 92(5), 873–875. However, it’s during this detoxification process that an oxidative reaction occurs, which results in the formation of toxic metabolites known as pyrrole-like intermediates—these are the true cause of comfrey’s toxic effect as these metabolites bind to proteins, RNA, and DNA and are the primary cause of the hepatotoxicity that causes liver damage (Hoffmann, 2003). The leaves also are similar -- large and hairy. In closing, we here at the Herbal Academy suggest erring on the side of caution and avoiding comfrey for internal use, particularly in the case of preexisting liver conditions, those taking medications that may affect liver function, during pregnancy, and while nursing. First, comfrey is only suggested for healthy individuals who have no history of liver disease or liver function issues, are not taking medications that reduce liver function, and are not pregnant or nursing. In a 2006 short-term study using oral preparations of comfrey (S. officinale) root extract in mice and rats, no hepatic and biliary toxic effects were observed at the conclusion of the study; however, researchers did recommend that longer studies are needed to determine the safety of PA-containing plant extracts (Seremet et al., 2006). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Inc. Moreira, R., Pereira, D.M., Valentao, P., & Andrade, P.B. I like to also add one teaspoon of DMSO. Gardner, Z., & McGuffin, M. The Herbal Academy supports trusted organizations with the use of affiliate links. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and food safety. Comfrey is sometimes used as a mild analgesic. Take 3-4 tablespoons of comfrey root powder (root powder works much better than comfrey leaves as there are more alkaloids inside the root) Put comfrey root powder into a small bowl. Herbal ABCs: The foundation of herbal medicine. It is also important to know that some unsaturated PAs have been shown to be more toxic than others, with the macrocyclic retronecine diesters (e.g., senecionine) being more toxic than the retronecine monoesters (e.g., symphytine and echimidine) (Hoffmann, 2003; Rode, 2004). Comfrey leaf and root contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PLAs), a group of toxic compounds that can cause damage to the liver. Comfrey is a perennial plant that propagates easily from root divisions. Tilgner, S.M. Therefore, applying a poultice made of comfrey root powder and leaf juice, or drinking tea made of comfrey root powder can greatly help in curing nosebleeds, bleeding in skin wounds, and in reducing and speeding the healing of bruises. Comfrey used to be used extensively for tuberculosis and irritating dry lung complaints in general. Do not use different forms (tablets, liquid, tincture, teas, etc) of comfrey at the same time without medical advice. You not only CAN use the leaves, but SHOULD do so. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. Comfrey is even believed to help decrease inflammation of tendon sheaths (Tilgner, 2018), supporting its use for joint sprains. Certain types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known hepatic and genetic toxins, and in some cases, respiratory toxins (Hoffmann, 2003). This is a chemical that has been scientifically proven to be toxic to the liver in high enough amounts. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and food safety. On the other hand, other studies using rats that were given isolated PAs from comfrey root or young leaf, both of which have higher levels of PAs than mature comfrey leaf (Mills & Bone, 2005), have shown to be toxic when given in both low and high concentrations (Mei et al., 2005; Yeong et al., 1993). The jury is still out however, so err on the safe side and use herb for internal use, not the root. While a number of plants contain PAs, such as alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria), arnica (Arnica montana), borage (Borago officinalis), coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara), comfrey (Symphytum spp. When it comes to the internal use of comfrey, some herbalists are comfortable continuing to use comfrey internally with a few cautions. To inform the public that comfrey leaves contain pa's that are both carcinogens and liver toxins does not make us scaremongers, either. It is often grown in medicinal gardens or for use as a natural fertilizer. Compared to true comfrey (Symphytum officinale), species of comfrey such as Russian comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) and prickly comfrey (Symphytum asperum) contain the more toxic macrocyclic diester PAs (Hoffmann, 2003) and higher levels of echimidine, which has exhibited a more toxic effect (Gardner & McGuffin, 2013). Mei, N., Guo, L., Fu, P.P., Heflich, R.H., & Chen, T. (2005). The Herbal Academy makes neither medical claim, nor intends to diagnose or treat medical conditions. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Mills, S., & Bone, K. (2005). PA levels vary depending on the plant part used, with roots containing higher levels of PAs than mature leaves (Gardner & McGuffin, 2013; Mills & Bone, 2005). Some studies show the leaf to be almost alkaloid free -- thus safe. It is important to know what part of the plant is usable medicinally and for comfrey, it is the leaves and the root. Generally speaking eat a healthy diet. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5, CD010538. Foxglove leaves spring from the root as a clump, while comfrey … contain the more toxic macrocyclic diester PAs (Hoffmann, 2003) and higher levels of echimidine, which has exhibited a more toxic effect (Gardner & McGuffin, 2013). The toxic effect of PAs is not a new phenomenon, and many cases of PA poisoning, from mild to severe and even fatal, have been reported (Hoffmann, 2003); however, the toxic effect of PAs in comfrey is where the debate is focused. Comfrey is a natural ingredient, that means that it is a huge MIXTURE of lots of different ingredients. You can make a comfrey poultice with the leaf or the root. The root contains 10-1000 times more Pyrrolizidine alkaloids than the leaves. ), and echinacea (Echinacea spp. Some varieties produce … doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602420. While it can be helpful for herbalists to take these studies into account, it should be noted that the majority of research involved isolating PAs and injecting them at various concentrations, often very high concentrations, into rats. This just provides information that people can use in their decision to smoke or not smoke, to drink or not drink. You can plant it once and have this very valuable plant forever. Hepatocyte membrane injury and bleb formation following low dose comfrey toxicity in rats. Comfrey root should only be used by a actual herbalist that knows what he is doing. I have my doubts about using comfrey for this purpose. > (BTW - Ignore any posts that follow from the resident afh scaremongers. From: jtreasure.jonno.demon.co.uk (Jonathan Treasure), >If one promptly died from drinking comfrey leaf tea, there would be less. Comfrey has been used for over 2,000 years in Chinese medicine to heal wounds and bones. Hepatocyte membrane injury and bleb formation following low dose comfrey toxicity in rats. (Eds.). Hoffmann, D. (2003). Comfrey leaf is prized for its allantoin content, making it useful for tissue repair and cell regeneration. Health benefits of this beautiful flowering plant include: Wound Healing. Comfrey ROOT has been implicated in the pyrrolizidine alkaloid link with occlusive liver disease. Comfrey is a plant. Its use as a medicinal herb is controversial as it is known to contain toxic alkaloids. PA toxicity occurs when unsaturated PAs are absorbed from the intestines and passed to the liver to be metabolized. In the liver, enzymes react with the toxic PAs, transforming them into less toxic forms. Topical comfrey is for use only on the skin. Comfrey Fertilizer and Mulch. Comfrey root was blamed. Moreira, R., Pereira, D.M., Valentao, P., & Andrade, P.B. species, the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) did ban the sale of botanical products containing toxic PAs (including those with Russian comfrey and prickly comfrey) for internal use, suggesting those products should be restricted to external use (Gardner & McGuffin, 2013). You can follow some tips from Healthtap doctors for breast feeding. Medical herbalism: The science and practice of herbal medicine. >I have a healthy crop of comfrey, courtesy of a friend, growing in my garden. Comfrey ROOT has been implicated in the pyrrolizidine alkaloid link with occlusive liver disease. By default both of these usually become scaremongering contributors. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Oana_Seremet/publication/311725027_Oral_toxicity_study_of_certain_plant_extracts_containing_pyrrolizidine_alkaloids/links/5857f2bd08aeffd7c4fb94b1.pdf, Herbal ABCs: The foundation of herbal medicine. Groves, M.N. Comfrey is even believed to help decrease inflammation of tendon sheaths (Tilgner, 2018), supporting its use for joint sprains. North America, Australia, and Asia are all places where comfrey is found. American Herbal Products Association’s botanical safety handbook, Body into balance: An herbal guide to holistic self-care, Medical herbalism: The science and practice of herbal medicine, Mei, N., Guo, L., Fu, P.P., Heflich, R.H., & Chen, T. (2005). The herb book I have says the beneficial part of the plant are the roots; I was wondering if the leaves have any properties as well. Depending on their molecular structure, PAs can be either saturated (such as those found in arnica and echinacea) or unsaturated (such as those found in alkanet, borage, coltsfoot, and comfrey). Gardner, Z., & McGuffin, M. While many herbalists have used comfrey internally for years with no known problems, others are heeding the warnings that stem from the conclusions of modern scientific studies on the internal use of comfrey. Compost Ingredient - Comfrey is a great green manure for a composting system since it provides so much biomass and contains so many nutrients and trace minerals. Even though this plant contains poisonous chemicals called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), some people use the leaf, root, and root-like stem (rhizome) to make medicine. Comfrey leaf has been used since Roman times, dating back thousands of years. You use the term US I notice? Much debate surrounds the safety of comfrey due to various parts … Comfrey is almost TOO good at what it does best… and there is another pretty big catch you should be aware of… WHY YOU SHOULD AVOID COMFREY. Take too many AMA-sponsored, FDA-approved, doctor-prescribed sleeping pills, and you die. Herbalists also choose comfrey species that are known to contain less toxic PAs. This herb has been utilized in folk medicine throughout Europe and North America and has been widely cultivated. Seremet, O.C., Barbuceanu, F., Ionica, F.E., Margina, D.M., Gutu, C.M.,Olaru, O.T., … Chirita, C. (2006). I answered the original posters question - you are scaremongering. Subject: Re: Comfrey leaves? Whether astride a horse in Provence, climbing a volcano in Costa Rica, taking a jet plane to New Zealand, or just spending a quiet day in my gardens, I am never without my herbal first-aid kit. used S. officinale, while Yeong et al. Depending on their molecular structure, PAs can be either saturated (such as those found in arnica and echinacea) or unsaturated (such as those found in alkanet, borage, coltsfoot, and comfrey). (Note that Mei et al. Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Werner on comfrey root vs comfrey leaves: Just a common sense: Stay away from strange substance while breast feeding. (2018). The herb’s leaves are easy to use as mulch. We use quite a lot of compost on our farm and comfrey helps us keep up with the quantity that we need. Tobacco and alcohol consumption is perpetuated by international corporations with huge fiscal benefits to the governments involved etc etc The extent of the toxicity/carcinogenicity of tobacco/alcohol would otherwise have lead to withdrawl from public availability long ago. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010538. From: jtreasure.jonno.demon.co.uk (Jonathan Treasure) Or enumerate what exactly you think the benefits of comfrey to be evaluated against exactly what risks. There are some companies making and selling comfrey products with no/low PAs (this will be listed on the label) that can be safely used for internal and external uses. Pleasant Hill, OR: Wise Acres Publishing. The third case involves a woman who overdosed: 10 cups of comfrey tea a day & handsful of comfrey pills. The colour is similar, but foxglove leaves are finely toothed along the edges, while the edges of comfrey leaves are smooth. If you are considering the internal use of comfrey, we recommend researching this matter for yourself in more depth so you have all the facts. Comfrey leaf tea is not dangerous if taken sensibly. It just allows people to begin thinking about weighing the benefits of comfrey use against the risks. Apply this thickly and liberally to the desired area. You can also try using comfrey as mulch or as a compost enhancer. AHPA reports that in Germany, the recommended external application of comfrey is a daily exposure at or below 100 μg unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids limited to 4 to 6 weeks per year (Gardner & McGuffin, 2013). (2018). http://www.henriettes-herb.com - Copyright 1995–2020 Henriette Kress. Add just enough water to turn it into a thick, wet paste, not too runny and not too dry. Readers must do their own research concerning the safety and usage of any herbs or supplements. . International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19. Common comfrey (Symphytum officianale) and Russian Comfrey (S. uplandicum) are fast-growing leafy plants that are considered invasive in some areas.They spread rapidly, and are incredibly difficult to control because new plants can sprout from even tiny sections of root … The most common result of PA toxicity is veno-occlusive disease in the liver. Saturated PAs are considered non-toxic, while unsaturated PAs are considered toxic (Hoffmann, 2003). was used, there is dissension among herbalists regarding this decision and whether comfrey is indeed toxic to a healthy human (Hoffmann, 2003) when used in appropriate dosages and frequencies. This is a question that herbalists have been debating since safety concerns were first brought to light regarding the potentially negative health effects associated with using comfrey internally. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis. Well Dan, the point is what is your agenda? King's Dispensatory writes 'Comfrey root is very useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, bronchial irritation, coughs, hemoptysis, other pulmonary affections, leucorrhoea, and female debility. Comfrey Root Alcohol-Free Liquid Extract, Organic Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) Dried Root Tincture Supplement (4 FL OZ) 4.5 out of 5 stars 12 $29.97 $ 29 . Information offered on Herbal Academy websites is for educational purposes only. Infected Wounds. While cases of veno-occlusive liver disease have been reported by individuals taking comfrey leaf or root, it is not known which species of comfrey was used, and dosage and frequency varied among individuals as well, thus making it difficult to come to a conclusion. I would recommend the … whose agenda is to rubbish the use of herbal medicine one way or another. PA levels also vary depending on the species of Symphytum. Goldenseal herb vs. root. Comfrey is available under the following different brand names: Black Root, Blackwort, Bruisewort, Common Comfrey, Gum Plant, Healing herb, Knitbone, Prickley Comfrey, Salsify, Slippery Root, Symphytum officinale, and Wallwort. While both comfrey leaf and root are well known for their mucilage content and associated demulcent action, the root is more demulcent than the leaf. The common comfrey plant is known in Latin as Symphytum officinale and displays a “hairy” exterior. Jasmine or orange blossoms may be added to … International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(6), 1668. doi:10.3390/ijms19061668, Seremet, O.C., Barbuceanu, F., Ionica, F.E., Margina, D.M., Gutu, C.M.,Olaru, O.T., … Chirita, C. (2006). Both plants grow to around 4 feet tall. Its analgesic action could be due to its alkaloid content, but it could also be due to the astringent, anti-inflammatory, and demulcent properties as well. All parts of the plant can be used including the root, leaves, stems and flowers. (2016). While a small amount of comfrey’s PAs may be absorbed through the skin, when used within the guidelines stated above, the amount is believed to be limited and, therefore, safe to use (Groves, 2016; Hoffmann, 2003). Warning the public that tobacco can cause cancer or that alcohol is a potential liver toxin does not make us scaremongers. I hope to avoid being burned as a heretic. Animal studies on the internal use of comfrey are plentiful but often show mixed results. American Herbal Products Association’s botanical safety handbook (2nd ed.). Comfrey is most commonly taken as a tea, a tincture or a poultice. As it happens, noone jumped onto the comfrey bandwagon, perhaps because of my advance warning, or perhaps I needn't have bothered. If one promptly died from drinking comfrey leaf tea, there would be less controversy concerning its use. International Journal of Experimental Pathology, 74(2), 211-217. At this point, there are no clinical studies showing the link between PAs and liver toxicity when comfrey is taken at typical doses by healthy humans. New York: CRC Press. I can appreciate the importance of a compostable bioaccumulator with deep roots able to extract or recover deep minerals. It is the tannin that is solely responsible for making comfrey herb so effective in controlling bleeding. Use the removed leaf debris as a side dressing along your vegetable plants. used S. x uplandicum). That being said, based on case reports of liver disease in individuals taking the leaf or root of unspecified Symphytum species, the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) did ban the sale of botanical products containing toxic PAs (including those with Russian comfrey and prickly comfrey) for internal use, suggesting those products should be restricted to external use (Gardner & McGuffin, 2013). A 2013 study concluded that a topical comfrey preparation probably eased osteoarthritis knee pain in a group of 220 participants (Cameron & Chrubasik, 2013). Wrap it with cloth or a bandage to hold it in place. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver. It happens, there are plenty of people who post advice to this newsgroup about safety and toxicity of herbal medicines who know nothing about the subject other than reading a secondary source on the matter, or worse repeating hearsay. Cool and strain. Sign up for the Herbal Academy Newsletter, and we'll send you a free ebook. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010538. Cameron, M., & Chrubasik, S. (2013). Links to external sites are for informational purposes only. There are also disagreements about the efficacy & safety of leaves vs. root. Animal studies on the internal use of comfrey are plentiful but often show mixed results. 10. A strong decoction, or tea, is recommended in cases of internal haemorrhage, whether from the lungs, stomach, bowels or from bleeding piles -to be taken every two hours till the haemorrhage ceases, in severe cases, a teaspoonful of Witch Hazel extract being added to the Comfrey root tea. Health Benefits of Comfrey. Please add your email address below and click "Submit" to add yourself to our mailing list. What is Comfrey? Comfrey Cream. (2018). Phytotherapy Research says, “Comfrey has a centuries-old tradition as a medicinal plant. Information about Comfrey leaf constituents presented as an equivalent to alcohol/tobacco masquerading under the freedom of informed choice ( as used by all trendy ultra conservatives) amounts to guilt by association - a standard tactic of what I call scaremongering. Cameron, M., & Chrubasik, S. (2013). When you apply comfrey to your skin, it can have some benefits on rashes and irritations. Add 50g of beeswax (usually available from supermarkets). Because of this, it is often used to soothe hot, dry tissues, particularly those in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinary tracts for digestive ulcers and diarrhea, coughs, or to ease symptoms associated with a urinary tract infection, respectively (Hoffmann, 2003; Tilgner, 2018). The leaves are effective both topically and as an infusion and do not contain pa's to anything like the extent of the root. Crush or powder the plant material and mix with water to form a paste. While a number of plants contain PAs, such as alkanet (. Lastly, most herbalists who use comfrey internally only do so for short periods of time to decrease exposure to PAs. Romanian Journal of Morphology & Embryology, 57, (3), 1017-1023. 97 ($7.49/Fl Oz) In this article, we will look at the benefits of comfrey and its traditional uses, its constituents and their physiological effects in the body, how comfrey is typically used internally and externally, and the safety facts that herbalists need to be aware of when using comfrey. Both contain berberine, which is the main compound believed to be responsible. The roots of leaves of the comfrey plant contain chemical substances called allantoin and rosmarinic acid. Body into balance: An herbal guide to holistic self-care. The drugs were not considered as possibilities. That being said, based on case reports of liver disease in individuals taking the leaf or root of unspecified.

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